Stridor (respiratory concern)

Stridor is a high-pitched, wheezing sound caused by disrupted airflow. Stridor may also be called musical breathing or extrathoracic airway obstruction.

Airflow is usually disrupted by a blockage in the larynx (voice box) or trachea (windpipe). Stridor affects children more often than adults.

Types of stridor

There are three types of stridor. Each type can give your doctor a clue about what is causing it.

Inspiratory stridor

In this type, you can only hear the abnormal sound when you breathe in. This indicates an issue with the tissue above the vocal cords.

Expiratory stridor

People with this type of stridor only experience abnormal sounds when they breathe out. Blockage in the windpipe causes this type.

Biphasic stridor

This type causes the abnormal sound when a person breathes in and out. When the cartilage near the vocal cords narrows, it causes these sounds.

What causes stridor?

It is possible to develop stridor at any age. However, stridor is more common in children than adults because children’s airways are softer and narrower.

Stridor in adults

Stridor in adults is most commonly caused by the following conditions:

  • an object blocking the airway
  • swelling in your throat or upper airway
  • trauma to the airway, such as a fracture in the neck or an object stuck in the nose or throat
  • thyroid, chest, esophageal, or neck surgery
  • being intubated (having a breathing tube)
  • inhaling smoke
  • swallowing a harmful substance that causes damage to the airway
  • vocal cord paralysis
  • bronchitis, an inflammation of the airways leading to the lungs
  • tonsillitis, an inflammation of the lymph nodes at the back of the mouth and top of the throat by viruses or bacteria
  • epiglottitis, an inflammation of the tissue covering the windpipe caused by the H. influenza bacterium
  • tracheal stenosis, a narrowing of the windpipe
  • tumors
  • abscesses, a collection of pus or fluid

Stridor in infants and children

In infants, a condition called laryngomalacia is usually the cause of stridor. Soft structures and tissues that obstruct the airway cause laryngomalacia.

It often goes away as your child ages and their airways harden. It may be quieter when your child is lying on their stomach, and louder when lying on their back.

Laryngomalacia is most noticeable when your child is about 6 months oldTrusted Source. It may start as soon as a few days after birth. Stridor usually goes away by the time your child is 2 years old.

Other conditions that may cause stridor in infants and children include:

  • croup, which is a viral respiratory infection
  • subglottic stenosis, which occurs when the voice box is too narrow; many children outgrow this condition, though surgery may be necessary in severe cases
  • subglottic hemangioma, which occurs when a mass of blood vessels forms and obstructs the airway; this condition is rare and may require surgery
  • vascular rings, which occur when an outer artery or vein compresses the windpipe; surgery may release the compression.
Who is at risk for stridor?

Children have narrower, softer airways than adults do. They’re much more likely to develop stridor. To prevent further blockage, treat the condition immediately. If the airway is completely blocked, your child won’t be able to breathe.

How is stridor diagnosed?

Your doctor will try to find the cause of you or your child’s stridor. They’ll give you or your child a physical examination and ask questions about medical history.

Your doctor may ask questions about:

  • the sound of the abnormal breathing
  • when you first noticed the condition
  • other symptoms, such as a blue color in your face or your child’s face or skin
  • if you or your child has been ill recently
  • if your child could have put a foreign object in their mouth
  • if you or your child is struggling to breathe

Your doctor may also order tests, such as:

If your doctor suspects an infection, they’ll order a sputum culture. This test checks material you or your child cough up from the lungs for viruses and bacteria. It helps your doctor see if an infection, such as croup, is present.

How is stridor treated?

Don’t wait to see if stridor goes away without medical treatment. Visit your doctor and follow their advice. Treatment options depend on the age and health of you or your child, as well as the cause and severity of the stridor.

Your doctor may:

  • refer you to an ear, nose, and throat specialist
  • provide oral or injected medication to decrease swelling in the airway
  • recommend hospitalization or surgery in severe cases
  • require more monitoring
When is emergency care necessary?

Contact your doctor immediately if you see:

  • a blue color in you or your child’s lips, face, or body
  • signs of difficulty breathing, such as the chest collapsing inward
  • weight loss
  • trouble eating or feeding

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Management of Burns and Scalds

Be careful over the Christmas Period if cooking 🎄🎄🎄

Burns and scalds are damage to the skin usually caused by heat. Both are treated in the same way.

A burn is caused by dry heat – by an iron or fire, for example. A scald is caused by something wet, such as hot water or steam.

Burns can be very painful and may cause:

– red or peeling skin
– blisters
– swelling
– white or charred skin
The amount of pain you feel is not always related to how serious the burn is. Even a very serious burn may be relatively painless.

To treat a burn

immediately get the person away from the heat source to stop the burning

cool the burn with cool or lukewarm running water for 20 minutes – do not use ice, iced water, or any creams or greasy substances like butter
remove any clothing or jewellery that’s near the burnt area of skin, including babies’ nappies, but do not move anything that’s stuck to the skin.

make sure the patient keeps warm by using a blanket, for example, but take care not to rub it against the burnt area

cover the burn by placing a layer of cling film over it – a clean plastic bag could also be used for burns on your hand

use painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen to treat any pain
if the face or eyes are burnt, sit up as much as possible, rather than lying down – this helps to reduce swelling (make sure no allergic)

if it’s an acid or chemical burn, dial 999, carefully try to remove the chemical and any contaminated clothing, and rinse the affected area using as much clean water as possible

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First Aid Training saves lives

The office can seem like a safe place to work, but, there are risks you wouldn’t think of until they happen. An accident can occur at any time and if it did, who in the workplace is trained to help? It is a legal requirement as a company to ensure your employees receive immediate attention. Here are 10 reasons why you should consider First Aid Training for employees.


1. It can save lives

This may seem like the most obvious reason, but it is proved that first aid saves lives. If there is an accident in the office is anyone trained to come to the rescue? First aid training gives your staff the confidence and ability to react immediately to an incident, injury or illness. CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) has been reported that many lives have been saved due to fast reaction CPR. This would have been given during critical and life-threatening accidents, injuries or health complications in the workplace.


2. Reduce the number of workplace accidents

First aid training helps employees learn to be more conscious of safety in the workplace, leading to a reduced number of accidents and injuries. Minimizing risk to workers and decreasing workplace incidents is a benefit to everyone, but for employers it has implications within all aspects of business operations. All employees become more safety aware, helping to bring down the number of accidents.


3. Positive work environment

By making first aid training available to employees, employers can show their workforce that they care about providing a safe work environment. First aid training provided in the workplace can even be used as an excellent team-building exercise and morale booster. Employee morale is an integral part of any company. High morale leads to positive attitudes and positive attitudes lead to positive results. The happiness and wellbeing of your employees will help you build a strong relationship, ultimately resulting in a better working environment. First aid training will help ensure employee health and safety in addition to enhanced wellbeing and morale.


4. Your company will be safer place to work

Many large companies give first aid as part of employee training; this is a very wise option because it guarantees they can all look out for one another. If an accident happens at work; employees may be able to prevent further injury to the victim of the accident. First aid courses in the work place promote safer practise amongst employees.


5. First aid kits are used properly

Not only will your employees know exactly what should be in the first aid kit and be able to maintain it properly, they’ll be able to use them effectively in an emergency. They will know where to access it quickly – again saving time and reducing the impact of the illness or injury. First aid trainees know exactly what’s in their first aid kits, how to use the contents, and the various ways to react in an emergency. In a beneficial way, it makes each employee an unofficial health and safety risk manager.


6. It can reduce recovery time

Rapid reaction to illness or injury, before further aid such as an ambulance arrives can not only save lives, but in addition, will reduce recovery time of the patient. If that patient is a member of staff, that means they’ll be back to work quicker, with less impact on the business.


7. It can keep employees safe outside of the workplace

It’s not just in the workplace where good first aid training is paramount – employees will have those skills for life, especially if you maintain ongoing refresher courses. This means they can treat themselves, their family and friends and the public effectively in an emergency.


8. It’s a great team-building exercise

When your staff get the opportunity to learn a skill together, one that will help them look after one another, it brings them closer together. Many teams have reported more awareness of their co-workers wellbeing following first aid training.


9. It gives your employees confidence and clarity during an emergency

First aid training doesn’t just teach your staff how to treat patients in need of first aid, it also gives them confidence and effectively manage an emergency without fear, confusion or overwhelm.


10. The cost of a First Aid at Work Training course is nothing compared to that of potentially saving a live.

Providing first aid and CPR training doesn’t cost much, but it will go a long way to ensuring workplace health and safety.

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Skeletal System

The skeletal system includes all of the bones and joints in the body. Each bone is a complex living organ that is made up of many cells, protein fibers, and minerals. The skeleton acts as a scaffold by providing support and protection for the soft tissues that make up the rest of the body. The skeletal system also provides attachment points for muscles to allow movements at the joints. New blood cells are produced by the red bone marrow inside of our bones

The skeletal system in an adult body is made up of 206 individual bones. These bones are arranged into two major divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton runs along the body’s midline axis and is made up of 80 bones in the following regions:

  • Skull
  • Hyoid
  • Auditory ossicles
  • Ribs
  • Sternum
  • Vertebral column

The appendicular skeleton is made up of 126 bones in the folowing regions:

  • Upper limbs
  • Lower limbs
  • Pelvic girdle
  • Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

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Bruising around eye or eyes

A black eye is the appearance of bruising around the eyes. It’s usually the result of trauma to the head or face, which causes bleeding beneath the skin. When the small blood vessels, or capillaries, beneath the skin break, blood leaks into the surrounding tissue. This is what causes the discoloration or bruising.

Black eyes due to a minor injury can be treated with ice, rest, and pain medication. A follow-up visit with your doctor will be suggested if you have any visual changes or lingering pain.

If swelling and pain accompany the bruising, apply a cold compress for 20 minutes, and then take it off for 20 minutes. When the swelling reduces, you may apply a warm compress to help promote the reabsorption of blood.

For any pain and throbbing, you may take pain relievers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen. Avoid putting pressure on the affected area.

There are many home remedies you can use to treat a black eye. An ice pack is the best method. Sometimes people use frozen packs of raw meat. It’s best to avoid this, as the meat may contain harmful bacteria.

A black eye may be the repercussion of a facial fracture. You need to seek immediate medical attention for any broken bones on your face or skull.

If headaches persist or if you experience a loss of vision or consciousness, your black eye may be a symptom of a concussion or a fracture. Other symptoms of a concussion include:

memory lapses
Another serious concern is the draining of blood or clear fluid from your nose or ear. Blood on the surface of your eyeball is also a cause for concern. This can be a sign of a ruptured eyeball or of damaged blood vessels in the eye. This may cause additional swelling and infection, which can make your eye immobile and blur your vision.

Complications of black eye

Sometimes black eyes can occur without trauma affecting the eye. If you have bad nasal allergies, you can get “allergic shiners.” These shiners may cause dark circles or the appearance of a black eye because blood flow is slightly hindered. The small veins under your eye will pool with blood and enlarge because the blood is going back to your heart more slowly.

Although highly unlikely, a black eye in a child without any sign of trauma can be an early symptom of myeloid leukemia.

Most cases of a black eye can be treated at home with ice, rest, and pain relievers. A black eye can last anywhere from one to two weeks as the bruising heals and blood slowly is absorbed back into your skin.

To ensure timely recovery from a black eye, avoid doing the following:

  • applying too much pressure
  • putting heat on the affected area
  • playing sports or being overly active in a way that will set you up for further injury

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Post Natal Depression

Postnatal depression is a type of depression that parents can have after having a baby.
Symptoms of postnatal depression include constant sadness, lack of energy and difficulty bonding with your baby.
Things you can do, such as resting and relaxing whenever you can, may help with postnatal depression. Some people need talking therapy or medicines.
Symptoms of postnatal depression include constant sadness, lack of energy and difficulty bonding with your baby.
Many women feel a bit down, tearful or anxious in the first week after giving birth.
This is often called the “baby blues” and is so common that it’s considered normal.
The “baby blues” do not last for more than 2 weeks after giving birth.
If your symptoms last longer or start later, you could have postnatal depression.
Postnatal depression can start any time in the first year after giving birth.
Signs that you or someone you know might be depressed include:
a persistent feeling of sadness and low mood
lack of enjoyment and loss of interest in the wider world
lack of energy and feeling tired all the time
trouble sleeping at night and feeling sleepy during the day
difficulty bonding with your baby
withdrawing from contact with other people
problems concentrating and making decisions
frightening thoughts – for example, about hurting your baby
Many women do not realise they have postnatal depression, because it can develop gradually.
Medical treatments
Postnatal depression can be lonely, distressing and frightening, but support and effective treatments are available.
These include:
self-help – things you can try yourself include talking to your family and friends about your feelings and what they can do to help, making time for yourself to do things you enjoy, resting whenever you get the chance, getting as much sleep as you can at night, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet
psychological therapy – a GP may be able to recommend a self-help course or may refer you for a course of therapy, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
antidepressants – these may be recommended if your depression is more severe or other treatments have not helped; your doctor can prescribe a medicine that’s safe to take while breastfeeding

Working at height incidents

What can cause Incidents regarding scaffolding

Improper construction

Just one out-of-place bolt can compromise the structure of a scaffold tower. Scaffolding should be fit for the project, and erected by a competent person. This will vary depending on the project and may require a registered professional to meet more complex requirements.

Lack of guardrails

Early this year, a scaffolder was killed in Kensington when he fell from a height. A guardrail can be the one thing preventing a small slip from turning into a tragedy.

Unstable planks

Whether they’re fitted incorrectly or weakened, a defective surface can lead to instability or even a fall.

No inspections

Of course, defective boards and insufficient guard-rail support can go amiss if no one is looking out for them. Reported problems should be addressed immediately.

Inadequate training

All the scaffold safety precautions will mean little if workers are not aware of how to keep them and those around them safe. Training should cover working from a height and the prevention of falling objects, as well as encouraging workers to report any problems they encounter so they can continue to work in a safe environment.

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Urinary Tract Infection (uti)

A urinary tract infection is an infection of your bladder, kidneys or the tubes connected to them.

Symptoms of a urinary tract infection include a sudden need to pee and pain or a burning sensation when peeing.
You can usually treat a urinary tract infection with things like painkillers and drinking plenty of fluids. A GP may prescribe antibiotics.
Urinary tract infections are usually caused by bacteria from poo entering the urinary tract.
Symptoms of a UTI include:
needing to pee suddenly or more often than usual
pain or a burning sensation when peeing
smelly or cloudy pee
blood in your pee
pain in your lower tummy
feeling tired and unwell
in older people, changes in behaviour such as severe confusion or agitation
UTI symptoms may be difficult to spot in people with dementia.
Children with UTIs may also:
appear generally unwell – babies may be irritable, not feed properly and have a high temperature of 37.5C or above
wet the bed or wet themselves
deliberately hold in their pee because it stings

Fractured Hip

The top of your femur and part of your pelvic bone meet to form your hip. A broken hip is usually a fracture in the upper portion of your femur, or thigh bone.

A joint is a point where two or more bones come together, and the hip is a ball-and-socket joint. The ball is the head of the femur and the socket is the curved part of the pelvic bone, called the acetabulum. The hip’s structure allows more range of movement than any other type of joint. For example, you can rotate and move your hips in multiple directions. Other joints, such as the knees and elbows, allow only limited movement in one direction.

A broken hip is a serious condition at any age. It almost always requires surgery. Complications associated with a broken hip can be life-threatening. Read on to learn more, including the risks, symptoms, treatment, and outlook for a broken hip.

What are the types of broken hip?

A hip fracture usually occurs in the ball portion (femur) of your hip joint and can occur in different places. At times, the socket or acetabulum can become fractured.

Femoral neck fracture: This type of break occurs in the femur about 1 or 2 inches from where the head of the bone meets the socket. A femoral neck fracture may cut off the blood circulation to the ball of your hip by tearing the blood vessels.

Intertrochanteric hip fracture: An intertrochanteric hip fracture occurs farther away. It’s about 3 to 4 inches from the joint. It doesn’t stop blood flow to the femur.

Intracapsular fracture: This fracture affects the ball and socket portions of your hip. It can also cause tearing of the blood vessels that go to the ball.

What causes a broken hip?

Potential causes of broken hips include:

  • falling on a hard surface or from a great height
  • blunt trauma to the hip, such as from a car crash
  • diseases such as osteoporosis, which is a condition that causes a loss of bone tissue
  • obesity, which leads to too much pressure on the hip bones
Who is at risk of a broken hip?

Certain aspects can increase your risk of breaking a hip. These include:

History of broken hip: If you’ve had a broken hip, you’re at a much greater risk of another one.

Ethnicity: If you’re of Asian or Caucasian descent, you’re at a higher risk of osteoporosis.

Sex: If you’re a woman, your chances of breaking your hip increases. This is because women are more susceptible to osteoporosis than men.

Age: If you’re 60 years or older, you may be at increased risk of breaking your hip. As you age, the strength and density of your bones can decrease. Weak bones can break easily. Advanced age also often brings vision and balance problems as well as other issues that can make you more likely to fall.

Malnutrition: A healthy diet includes nutrients that are important for your bone health, such as protein, vitamin D, and calcium. If you’re not getting enough calories or nutrients from your diet, you can become malnourished. This can put you at risk for fractures has found that older adults who are malnourished have a greater risk of a hip break. It’s also important for children to get enough calcium and vitamin D for their future bone health.

What are the symptoms of a broken hip?

The symptoms for a broken hip can include:

  • pain in the hip and groin area
  • the affected leg being shorter than the unaffected leg
  • an inability to walk or put weight or pressure on the affected hip and leg
  • inflammation of the hip
  • bruising

A broken hip can be life-threatening. If you suspect a broken hip, seek medical medical assistance 999 / 112

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The role of insulin in the body

It may be easier to understand the importance of insulin therapy if you understand how this naturally occurring hormone usually works in the body and what happens if you have diabetes.

If you don’t have diabetes, insulin helps:

  • Regulate blood sugar levels. After you eat, carbohydrates break down into glucose, a sugar that is the body’s primary source of energy. Glucose then enters the bloodstream. The pancreas responds by producing insulin, which allows glucose to enter the body’s cells to provide energy.
  • Store excess glucose for energy. After you eat — when insulin levels are high — excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen. Between meals — when insulin levels are low — the liver releases glycogen into the bloodstream in the form of glucose. This keeps blood sugar levels within a narrow range.

If you have diabetes:

Your glucose levels will continue to rise after you eat because there’s not enough insulin to move the glucose into your body’s cells. People with type 2 diabetes don’t use insulin efficiently (insulin resistance) and don’t produce enough insulin (insulin deficiency). People with type 1 diabetes make little or no insulin.

Untreated, high blood glucose can eventually lead to complications such as blindness, nerve damage and kidney damage.

Goals of insulin therapy

If you have type 1 diabetes, insulin therapy is vital for replacing the insulin your body doesn’t produce. Sometimes, people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes need insulin therapy if other treatments haven’t been able to keep blood glucose levels within the desired range. Insulin therapy helps prevent diabetes complications by keeping your blood sugar within your target range.

Types of insulin

There are several types of insulin available that vary in how quickly and how long they can control blood sugar. Frequently your doctor may recommend combining more than one type of insulin. To determine which types of insulin you need and how much you need, your doctor will consider factors such as the type of diabetes you have, your glucose levels, how much your blood sugar fluctuates throughout the day and your lifestyle.

The general types of insulin therapy include:

  • Long-, ultralong- or intermediate-acting insulin. When you’re not eating, your liver releases glucose so the body continually has energy. Long, ultra-long or intermediate-acting insulin helps the body use this glucose and keeps glucose levels from rising too high.

    Examples of these insulins are glargine (Lantus, Basaglar, Toujeo), detemir (Levemir), degludec (Tresiba) and NPH (Humulin N, Novolin N, Novolin ReliOn Insulin N). These insulins work for between eight and 40 hours, depending on the type.

  • Rapid- or short-acting insulin. These insulins are ideal for preventing blood sugar spikes after you eat. They begin to work much faster than long-acting or intermediate-acting insulins do, sometimes in as little as three minutes. But they work for a much shorter period of time, usually about two to four hours.

    Examples of these insulins include aspart (NovoLog, Fiasp), glulisine (Apidra), lispro (Humalog, Admelog) and regular (Humulin R, Novolin R).

Insulin delivery options

Insulin doesn’t come in pill form because the digestive system would break it down before it had a chance to work. But there are several choices for insulin delivery. Your doctor can help you decide which fits best with your lifestyle and treatment needs.

Options include:

  • Shots or pens. Insulin can be injected into the fat just below your skin with a syringe and needle or a penlike device that hold insulin with a needle attached. How often depends on the type of diabetes you have, your blood sugar levels and how often you eat. It may be multiple times each day.
  • Insulin pump. An insulin pump pushes small, steady doses of rapid-acting insulin into a thin tube inserted underneath your skin. These doses are delivered repeatedly throughout the day. There are several different kinds of insulin pumps available.
  • Inhaled insulin (Afrezza). This type of insulin is rapid-acting and you inhale it at the beginning of each meal. People who smoke or have lung problems such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should not use inhaled insulin.

Insulin therapy can sometimes be demanding, but it’s an effective way to lower blood sugar levels. If you have any trouble with your insulin regimen, such as difficulty avoiding very low or very high blood sugar levels, be sure to talk to your doctor to see if any adjustments need to be made. By choosing an insulin regimen that fits your needs and lifestyle, you can prevent diabetes complications and lead an active, healthy life.

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